Namayingo district local government attained district status in July 2010 from Bugiri district. The district is located in the Eastern region of Uganda. It is bordered by Bugiri district to the Northwest, Busia district to the northeast, the Republic of Kenya to the East and southeast, the Republic of Tanzania to the South, and Mayuge district to the west and southwest. The district headquarter is 216 km away from the capital city Kampala, along the newly tarmacked Musita- Namayingo- Lumino -Busia Road.
The district has a total population of 215,443 people of which 109,140 are females and 106,303 males according to the 2014 National population and housing census. The fertility rate lies at 7.8 children per woman. Namayingo is a multi-lingual community comprising of the Samia as the majority, Basoga, Japadhola, Bagishu, Baganda, Jaluo, Bakenye, Bagwere, and Itesots.
The land is generally characterized by gently undulating hills with few higher residual features. A narrow and generally higher accentuated relief to the south forms a watershed between Lake Victoria drainage and northern drainage. The major swamp and hill are Dohwe and Syabona located in Buhemba sub- County on the southwestern side and Banda sub-county respectively.
Relief and climate
Namayingo district has a mean annual rainfall of 1200mm in the wetter south and 900mm in the drier northwest. Within the wetter south, precipitation varies. The southern parts of the district receive between 1,000mm to 1,500mm of rainfall per year. The northern part is relatively drier with an average of 650mm while the northwest is drier with precipitation between 500mm to 450mm. Generally, there are two peak rainfall seasons in a year, that is, from April to June and from August to November. The two are punctuated by a dry season from December to March. Rainfall is important to the life of the people in the district as they depend on rain-fed agriculture, its timing and intensity create an impact on agricultural productivity in the district. However, rainfall is no longer reliable and difficult to predict, making it difficult for farmers to plan for agricultural seasons properly. The temperatures range from 16.7 to 28.1with the month of January being the hottest. The average wind speed is 4.4km/hour mainly blowing towards the north during March.
The soils covering most of the district are mainly loamy and sandy loams. These soils have fine textiles with rather loose structures, which are easily eroded and leached. Most soils are acidic. Soil types in the district include; Yellow red sandy, clay loams soils varying from dark grey to dark which is slightly and mainly derived from granite, gneissic and sedimentary rocks. They occur on gently undulating hilly topography. Brown yellow clay loams with laterite horizon with a variety of dark brown to dark greyish brown, which are slightly acidic. These occur on flat ridge tops or as of undulating topography. Light grey white mottled loamy soils with laterite horizon ground, structure-less loamy sands. They are acidic, allocative, and mainly found on the lower and bottom slopes.
A total of 546 hectares of the district land is central forest reserves though these have been encroached upon and cleared for firewood, charcoal, building poles, timber, farming, and other non-timber products. Rapid deforestation and degradation of forests are some of the adverse impacts resulting from the lack of management of forests. The main pressures behind deforestation are; increased forest land for cultivation increased demand for forest products like fuelwood, timber, poles, charcoal, and poverty, breakdown of law, or weak enforcement. The high rate of deforestation has resulted in bare hills with little or no trees or grass for example Syabona hill in Banda sub-county.
The district has a total area of 532.9 km2 of which ¼ is dry land and the rest is covered by the water bodies. The land surface is characterized by gentle undulating with few higher residual features. The administration and district land board manage land matters within the district with the ultimate aim of improving the livelihoods of the population by reducing poverty levels basing on the fact that land is a basic factor of production. Most of the land in the district is unregistered customary ownership with an increasing number of leaseholds and freeholds in Namayingo town council and Buyinja sub-county. The main land use is agriculture, but the use depends on ownership, tenure, and customs. The tunure arrangement is associated with several pressures including; overgrazing, bushing burning, and land fragmentation. These pressures tend to limit the sustainable utilization of land resources and instead lead to over exploitation. To ensure that land ownership facilitates development, the government needs to roll out a systematic land demarcation and survey the entire country as per the Vision 2040.
The district is endowed with the following natural resources; Gold, Rock sites in Lolwe islands, sand at the shores of Lake Victoria, Hills in the islands with unique features, wildlife, Lake Victoria, and Various vegetation types.
Namayingo District is subdivided into three constituencies namely; Bukooli islands, Namayingo south, and Bukooli South. Bukooli Islands is subdivided into three sub-counties namely Sigulu, Bukana, and Lolwe islands. Bukooli south mainland constituency has two sub-counties and one town council namely Buyinja Buswale and Namayingo town council while Namayingo south constituency has three sub-counties and two town councils namely Mutumba, Banda, Buhemba, Banda town council, and Mutumba town council. The newly created town councils of Mutumba and Banda have so far received start-ups and are waiting for operational funds. There are 50 parishes with a total of 306 villages.